Greatest Hits and Key Articles on Central Issues in Applying PRISM and RE-AIM


Below are a series of articles organized chronologically that illustrate the evolution of RE-AIM and address issues on which we frequently receive questions about applying PRISM/RE-AIM:

Listing of Selective RE-AIM Citations: 40 Key Articles Reflecting Diversity of Topics; Settings; and Contributors*


Key Words


Citation (First author and Journal)


Foundational paper; conceptualization and application

Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: the RE-AIM framework

Glasgow et al., Am J Public Health


Primary care; chronic disease management; interactive technology; implementation

Making a difference with interactive technology: considerations in using and evaluating computerized aids for diabetes self-management education

Glasgow et al., Diabetes Spectrum


Primary care; chronic disease management; health equity; reach

Reaching those most in need: A review of diabetes self-management interventions in disadvantaged populations

Eakin et al., Diabetes Metab Res Rev


Physical activity; evaluation methodology; conceptualization and application

Evaluating the public health impact of physical activity interventions: Issues of generalizability and public health

Estabrooks et al., Psychol Sport Exerc


Work site; systematic review; reporting methodology

Work site health promotion research: to what extent can we generalize the results and what is needed to translate research to practice

Bull et al., Heal Educ Behav


Primary care; web resources; implementation

RE-AIM: evidence-based standards and a Web resource to improve translation of research into practice.

Dzewaltowski et al., Ann Behav Med


Planning expansion; research translation; behavior change consortium

Beginning with the application in mind: designing and planning health behavior change interventions to enhance dissemination.

Klesges et al., Ann Behav Med.


Composite metrics; conceptualization and measurement; population health

Evaluating the impact of health promotion programs: using the re-aim framework to form summary measures for decision making involving complex issues

Glasgow et al., Health Educ Res


Policy arena; planning and evaluation models

Applying the RE-AIM framework to assess the public health impact of policy change

Jilcott et al., Ann Behav Med


Expanded RE-AIM model; PRISM; contextual factors

A practical, robust implementation and sustainability model (PRISM) for integrating research findings into practice

Feldstein et al., Jt CommJ Qual Patient Saf


Cost arena; implementation; research translation

Costing behavioral interventions: a practical guide to enhance translation

Ritzwoller et al., Ann Beh Med


School health; lifestyle behaviors; state-wide application

Using the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the statewide dissemination of a school-based physical activity and nutrition curriculum: Exercise Your Options.

Dunton  et al., Am J Health Promot


Environmental arena; planning and implementation; measurement

Reaiming RE-AIM: using the model to plan, implement, and evaluate the effects of environmental change approaches to enhancing population health

King et al., Am J Public Health


Aging; dementia caregiving; home care; research translation;

Translation of a dementia caregiver intervention for delivery in homecare as a reimbursable medicare service: outcomes and lessons learned

Gitlin et al., Gerontologist


Aging; Active for Life; physical activity; sustainability

Sustainability of Evidence-Based Community-Based Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: Lessons from Active for Life. 

Estabrooks et al., Transl Behav Med.


Health communication; health literacy; systematic review

Understanding the internal and external validity of health literacy interventions: a systematic literature review using the RE-AIM framework

Zoellner et al., J Health Commun


HIV; mixed methods research; health information exchange

Processes and outcomes of developing a continuity of care document for use as a personal health record by people living with HIV/AIDS in New York City.

Gordon et al., Int J Med Inform


RE-AIM applications; qualitative data; paradigm cases;

What does it mean to ‘‘employ’’ the RE-AIM model?

Kessler et al., Eval Health Pro


Systematic review; Application of RE-AIM criteria

The RE-AIM framework: a systematic
review of use over time.

Gaglio et al., Am J Public Health


Methods, measures; models; evidence integration triangle;  research translation;

What Does It Mean to Be Pragmatic? Pragmatic Methods, Measures, and Models to Facilitate Research Translation

Glasgow, Health Educ Behav


Physical activity; systematic review; international applications

Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity

Galaviz et al., Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act


Pragmatic trials; Model attributes; reporting: PRECIS; RE-AIM

How pragmatic is it? lessons learned using PRECIS and RE-AIM for determining pragmatic characteristics of research

Gaglio et al., Implement Sci


Multi-sectorial partnerships; implementation interventions; international applications

Operationalizing the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the impact of multi-sector partnerships

Sweet et al., Implement Sci


Obesity; systematic review; reporting methodology

A RE-AIM evaluation of evidence-based multi-level interventions to improve obesity-related behaviours in adults: A systematic review (the SPOTLIGHT project)

Compernolle et al, Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act


Network analysis; model diffusion

Network analysis of RE-AIM framework: chronology of the field and the connectivity of its contributors

Shoup et al., Transl Behav Med


Systematic review; RE-AIM applications; reporting methodology; website resources

Fidelity to and comparative results across behavioral interventions evaluated through the RE-AIM framework: a systematic review.

Harden et al., Syst Rev.


Aging; state initiatives; RE-AIM applications; reporting

Perceived utility of the RE-AIM framework for health promotion/ disease prevention initiatives for older adults: a case study from the U.S. evidence-based disease prevention initiative

Ory et al., Front Public Health Note this article was part of a larger research topic on evidence-based programs which included several other articles relevant to RE-AIM 


Primary care; health risk assessment; implementation and effectiveness; pragmatic trial

The impact of behavioral and mental health risk assessments on goal setting in primary care

Krist et al., 28.  Transl Behav Med


Primary care; physical activity; methods; implementation; international applications;

Evaluating the effectiveness of physician counseling to promote physical activity in Mexico: an effectiveness-implementation hybrid study

Galaviz et al., Transl Behav Med  


Resource materials; physical activity; international applications

Applying the RE-AIM conceptual framework for the promotion of physical activity in low-and middle-income countries.

Lee et al., Rev Lat AmEnfermagem


Resource materials; RE-AIM applications; planning

Pragmatic applications of RE-AIM for healthcare initiatives in community and clinical settings.

Glasgow et al., Prev Chronic Dis.


Mixed methods; qualitative approaches; contextual factors

Qualitative approaches to use of the REAIM framework: rationale and methods

Holtrop et al., BMC Health Serv Res


Research transparency; reporting standards

Expanding the CONSORT figure: increasing transparency in reporting on external validity.

Glasgow et at., Am J Prev


Primary care; implementation; adaptation; contextual factors; case studies

Systematic, Multi-method Assessment of Adaptations across Four Diverse Health Systems Interventions.

Rabin et al., Front Public Health


RE-AIM applications; multi-settings; lessons learned

RE-AIM in clinical, community, and corporate settings: Perspectives, strategies, and recommendations to enhance public health impact

Harden et al., Front Public Health


Primary care; models; PRISM; context; qualitative methods

Using the Practical, Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model (PRISM) to qualitatively assess multilevel contextual factors to help plan, implement, evaluate, and disseminate health services programs

McCreight et al., Transl Behav Med  


Twenty–year review; conceptualization and pragmatic applications; contextual factors; model integration

RE-AIM planning and evaluation framework: Adapting to new science and practice with a twenty-year review

Glasgow et al., Front Public Health


Physical activity; systems-based model; integrated partnerships; case studies

Using integrated research-practice partnerships to move evidence-based principles into practice

Estabrooks et al., Exerc Sport Sci Rev


RE-AIM, dissemination and implementation, program planning, evaluation, pragmatic

RE-AIM in the Real World: Use of the RE-AIM Framework for Program Planning and Evaluation in Clinical and Community Settings


Kwan et al., Front Public Health


RE-AIM, household air pollution, case studies, clean cooking, implementation science, program evaluation

Adapting and Operationalizing the RE-AIM Framework for Implementation Science in Environmental Health: Clean Fuel Cooking Programs in Low Resource Countries


Quinn et al., Front Public Health


RE-AIM misconceptions; model evolution; commentary

Characterizing evolving frameworks: Issues from Esmail et al. (2020) review

Glasgow et al., Implement Sci


15+ articles on topics such as: RE-AIM reviews and commentary; model integration; real world applications; mid-course adaptations; organizational maintenance; reconceptualizing sustainability; qualitative evaluations; international perspectives; RE-AIM resources

Use of RE-AIM Framework: Translating Research to Practice with Novel Applications and Emerging Directions

Smith et al., Frontiers in Public Health Research Topic


implementation science, frameworks, rapid, iterative, adaptation, RE-AIM, evaluation

Making Implementation Science More Rapid: Use of the RE-AIM Framework for Mid-Course Adaptations Across Five Health Services Research Projects in the Veterans Health Administration


Glasgow et al., Frontiers in Public Health Research Topic


translational research, Implementation Outcomes Framework, scale-up, implementation outcomes, RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance)

Comparing, Contrasting, and Integrating Dissemination and Implementation Outcomes Included in the RE-AIM and Implementation Outcomes Frameworks


Reilly et al., Frontiers in Public Health Research Topic


dissemination, implementation, resources, application, synopsis

National Working Group on the RE-AIM Planning and Evaluation Framework: Goals, Resources, and Future Directions


Harden et al., Frontiers in Public Health Research Topic


RE-AIM, sustainability, sustainment, frameworks, health equity, implementation science, evaluation, adaptation

An Extension of RE-AIM to Enhance Sustainability: Addressing Dynamic Context and Promoting Health Equity Over Time


Shelton et al., Frontiers in Public Health Research Topic


RE-AIM, physical activity, cooperative Extension system, implementation science, translation

Beginning With the End in Mind: Contextual Considerations for Scaling-Out a Community-Based Intervention

Balis et al. Frontiers of Public Health


dissemination and implementation scienceTotal Worker Healthtranslational scienceoccupational safety and healthevidence-based interventionshealth equity

Dissemination and Implementation Science Approaches for Occupational Safety and Health Research: Implications for Advancing Total Worker Health


Guerin et al. Environmental Research and Public Health


RE-AIM; Implementation Science Framework; generalization; PRISM; Sustainability; Adaptation

Understanding and applying the RE-AIM framework: Clarifications and resources


Holtrop et al. Cambridge Core

* This list compiled by Marcia Ory and Samantha Harden. See for fuller listing of over 600 RE-AIM related articles published since 1999.



Additional resources:

An overview of the most recent directions for RE-AIM:

RE-AIM Planning and Adaptation Tool: Self Rating Tool and Planning Tool

RE-AIM website in general:  and especially the Resources section

RE-AIM slide deck – recommended for use in presentations – all publicly available